[نویسنده : محمد احسان خرامید | تاریخ ارسال : شنبه بیست و هفتم مهر 1387]
Holes in Evolutionism
Skeleton of Human beings
By: Dr. Engineer Salama Abdelhady
Quran is the Miracle of Islam, the last message to humanity that was revealed to Mohamed, to be the Evidence of his truth as a messenger. The reader may look at the following article to know the miracles of such book..
The truth of this statement is verified also by many verses in the Quran that punch scientific holes in the claimed evolutionism. One of these verses is interpreted from Arabic as follows:
[67.23] Say: He it is Who builds up your (human) structure and arrange your ability of hearing and seeing and he made your hearts: your given thanks are so little (in comparison to Creator’s favours)
We may look in this article through my engineering culture to the miracles of this heavenly statement: Who builds your HUMAN STRUCTURE. Surely, our structure as human beings is a genius engineering structure that requires the most powerful super computers and the tops of consultant engineering offices to design such structure and to understand the wisdom of each of its parts and components and the laws for its calculation and the techniques of its fabrication.
The humans, in the present era of science and technology, cannot design or produce by all their means, tools, technologies and arts such structure. So, how the nature can do that?
Our structure is formed mainly by hard bones composed of a network of collagen fibres impregnated with mineral salts (largely calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate), a combination that gives it great density and strength, comparable in some cases with that of reinforced concrete which structured our engineering buildings. Bone is one of God's strongest materials that structured our human body. One cubic cm can bear loads of 700 kg. This strength rivals that of light steel, but a steel skeleton would be five times heavier. Bone is made up of protein collagen and minerals (calcium and phosphate). Collagen fibres are miraculously strong, flexible and elastic to support the body and allow its stable movement. The minerals give the bone its hardness and rigidity. Together they make a matrix that provides maximal strength in a lightweight form. Bone is composed of structural units called Haversian systems. Each system is made up of concentrically arranged layers of hard, inorganic material surrounding a microscopic central Haversian canal. Blood vessels that feed and maintain such bones and nerves that control its movement pass through this canal. The living bone cells (osteocytes) lie along the interfaces between adjoining concentric layers of the hard matrix. Materials are exchanged between the living cells and the blood vessels in the Haversian canal by way of radiating canaliculi, an unknown and heavenly process. Most bones are not solid, compact structures, or they would be unnecessarily heavy in proportion to the strength requirements. The large bones are therefore hollow. Sufficient bone bars and braces extend from the solid bone exterior into the hollow interior to provide reinforcement similar to the engineering of bridges. So wisely is the order of God arranged that this space in the bone shaft is not wasted, but filled with bone marrow, which is used as a factory for red blood.
Such bones are arranged into an engineering truss or structure formed of bones and is called “Skeleton”. The skeleton provides the framework which supports our body and maintains its shape. There are joints between bones that permit movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Skelton muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons to power the movement of our bodies in intended directions which are mastered by nervous system and controlled by brain.
Skelton or the reinforced concrete structure of our bodies consist of 206 bones in the adult human skeleton These bones are organized into a longitudinal axis, the axial skeleton, to which the appendicular skeleton is attached. The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (26), the thoracic cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum), and the skull (22 bones and 7 associated bones). The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk, and the upper extremities down to the pelvis and then to the lower extremities at the hip joints, and is therefore responsible for the peculiar upright position of the human body. Most of the body weight is located in front of the spinal column which therefore has the erector spinae muscles and a large amount of ligaments attached to it resulting in the curved shape of the spine. The 240 skeletal muscles acting on the axial skeleton position the spine, allowing for small movements in the thoracic cage for breathing, and the head, where they control the minute and complex facial movements.
The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is subdivided into the upper and lower extremities: The axial skeleton is connected to the upper extremity (60) through thepectoral girdle (4) and to the lower extremity (60) through the pelvic girdle (2). Some 300 muscles attach to the appendicular skeleton. The only joint between the pectoral girdle and the thorax is between the clavicle and the sternum (i.e. the sternoclavicular joint), the scapula instead being controlled by muscles. The humerus articulates to the scapula at the shoulder joint and to the two parallel bones of forearm, the radius and ulna, in the elbow joints (humeroulnar, humeroradial, and radioulnar). The distal ends of the forearm bones form the wrist joints with the hand. In the hand, eight carpal bones arranged in two rows articulate with the metacarpal bones of the palm which articulate with the 14 finger bones (the phalanges). The pelvic girdle is a composite structure which includes bones from both the axial skeleton, the sacrum and the coccyx, and the lower extremities, the two hip bones. Because the lower limbs have to bear the weight of the human body — reaction forces at the feet can be 5-10 times the body weight during sprinting and jumping — the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the lower leg are massive and have a network of fibers and many strong muscles to maximize strength and stability. Similarly, and in contrast to the elbow, in the knee the kneecap, a sesamoid bone formed in the tendon of the large quadriceps muscles of the thigh, protects the knee from damage while helping the muscles in extending the knee. In each ankle there are 7 tarsal bones, including the heel bone, and in each foot 5 metatarsal bones and 14 phalanges. The foot represent the base of the human structure as it bears the whole weight of the body and gives the straightness of such structure.The calcaneus, or the heel bone, is the largest bone of the human foot and represents the main part that gives the body its locomotive stability. The skeleton of the human foot is made up of three groups of bones: the tarsus, the metatarsus, and the phalanges. The tarsal bones consist of the calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and the first, second, and third cuneiforms.
Such skeleton protects many vital organs with bones of heavenly designed thickness and rigidity that fit optimally to the importance of the protected organs; the skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears, the spine protects the spinal cord, the rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels, the clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder, the ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip, the patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively and the carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively.
Can any logic human imagine the nature may design and manufacture such genius structure? If accepting the human madness with a positive answer (YES), who adapt the skeletons of human males to suit their allocated tasks and of the human female to perform other specified tasks? There are found many differences between the male and female human skeletons. Most prominent is the difference in the pelvis, owing to characteristics required for the processes of childbirth. The shape of a female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger to allow the head of a fetus to pass. Men tend to have slightly thicker and longer limbs and digit bones (phalanges), while women tend to have narrower rib cages, smaller teeth, less angular mandibles , less pronounced cranial features such as the brow ridges and external occipital protuberance (the small bump at the back of the skull), and the carrying angle of the forearm is more pronounced in females. Females also tend to have more rounded shoulder blades.
Have the nature allocated such tasks and the designs in the male and female structures? It is one of the Holes in Evolutionism as stemmed from the stated verse. However, the genius upright structure of a human body, its balance, its harmony, its symmetry and its stability represent also great holes in evolutionism. Where are the missing stages between all high animals as apes, gorillas and monkeys and such completely precious structure of a liberal creature. The nature cannot allocate tasks, calculate loads, arrange bones-fibers and thickness, gift freedom of movement in the six directions, manufacture joints, lubricate such joints, replace fractured bones, maintain such bones, adjust skeletons according to body weight and size and support each bone to bear its directional stresses. If we found some similarity between human skeleton and some animals-skeleton, it is simply because of the Uniqueness or Oneness of the CREATOR. BUT THE NATURE IS NOT SO WISE TO DO SIMULTANEUSLY ALL THESE HUMAN PECULIRITIES. Peculiarities in the design of the human skeleton, bones, pelvis, heel bone or the cacaneus as well as its peculiar symmetry and moving uprightly to suit a gifted human superiority should lead us to a great question: DOES THE HUMANS HAVE ANY FAVOR IN SUCH PECULIAR DESIGN? The answer is surely “NO” BECAUSE NO ONE CAN MODIDY HIS BONES IN ANY FASION TO SUIT ADDITIONAL DESIRED TASKS.Hence, why to argue in being created??? It is not an escape route because it is a complex problem. But it is the only human answer to find a logic solution for such problem.
God specified humans with 46 chromosomes, 70.000 genes and peculiar structure and abilities. However, unlike camels which have different structures as in camel-like creatures in the family Camelidae where all have 74 chromosomes but we find two true camels, and the four South American camelids, the llama, alpaca, guanaco, and vicuña. Each of them has special constructional differences as the number and shape of humps, the structure of blood cells and molecules, the life duration, the structure and number of bones, etc. But in humans, it is not the case AS ALL HUMANS ARE SIMILAR. Do you know SIMPLY WHY? BECAUSE ALL HUMANS ARE BORN FROM ONE CREATED MALE (ADAM) AND ONE CREATED FEMALE (EVE). BELIEVE OR NOT BELIEVE. BUT IT IS THE TRUE FACT. Those disbeliever, surely do not deserve their humanity and their gifted ability of logic thinking. The other gifted abilities to see and hear as well as our hearts which are stated in the discussed verse represent other holes in evolutionism. But these abilities will be discussed, Insha Allah, in future articles
God specified humans with 46 chromosomes, 70.000 genes and peculiar structure and abilities. However, unlike camels which have different structures as in camel-like creatures in the family Camelidae where all have 74 chromosomes but we find two true camels, and the four South American camelids, the llama, alpaca, guanaco, and vicuña. Each of them has special constructional differences as the number and shape of humps, the structure of blood cells and molecules, the life duration, the structure and number of bones, etc. But in humans, it is not the case AS ALL HUMANS ARE SIMILAR.
Do you know SIMPLY WHY? BECAUSE ALL HUMANS ARE BORN FROM ONE CREATED MALE (ADAM) AND ONE CREATED FEMALE (EVE). BELIEVE OR NOT BELIEVE. BUT IT IS THE TRUE FACT.
Those disbeliever, surely do not deserve their humanity and their gifted ability of logic thinking.
The other gifted abilities to see and hear as well as our hearts which are stated in the discussed verse represent other holes in evolutionism. But these abilities will be discussed, Insha Allah, in future articles